Cultural creatives are a phenomenon of the early 21st century. As we reach the later stages of what has been called the ‘information age’, we face a world in crisis. We are exposed to an overwhelming number of fragments of information about the crises. How are we to deal with all these global crises?
It seems that humanity is faced with a need for massive change. There’s a need for a new story of creative consciousness. The discovery of ‘cultural creatives’ by Paul Ray and Sherry Anderson adds support to this argument. Philosophers like Krishnamurti, Ervin Laszlo, Stanislav Grof, and Peter Russell have argued that we need a consciousness revolution to address the crisis that we are facing. The deep ecologist and peace activist, Joanna Macy, calls this the great turning. Ecologist Paul Hawken identifies a state of blessed unrest that has led to one to two million NGOs in the world. One such NGO is the Pachamama Alliance that derived from a dream of the Achuar rainforest people of Ecuador. The message of Universal Sufism that the Indian Sufi Master and musician, Inayat Khan brought to the West in 1910 may be considered a precursor to these movements.
Research shows that as many as 35% of the population of OECD nations maybe cultural creatives, many of whom are in a state of blessed unrest and active as part of NGOs. This situation offers a whole new possibility of positive social change
Social ecology allows us to explore cultural creatives and creative consciousness. It includes the personal consciousness, the social consciousness, the ecological consciousness and all of which are held within a cosmological consciousness – our spiritual domain.
The global crisis now facing us is, at its root, a crisis of consciousness. The essence of any crisis, whether it be a personal crisis, a political crisis, or, as in this case, a global crisis, is that the old way of functioning is no longer working. Something new is being called for. In this case the old way that is no longer working is our mode of consciousness.
Peter Russell 
As we enter the new millennium our world faces a major crisis of the spirit. The modern world has appeared to be very successful at developing the world of matter. In economically developed countries like Australia (where I live) for a majority of the population, all our material concerns have been largely addressed. When, on the other hand, we consider the world of spirit in contemporary Australia, and in the modern world in general, it is sadly neglected. Evidence for this is all around us. Perhaps the most obvious example is the destruction of our eco-system by our modern lifestyle. The high levels of pollution in the atmosphere and the water, the amount of toxins in our food, the destruction of natural wilderness systems, like 90% of our forests in 200 years, that are vital to maintaining a healthy wholesome existence, are the most obvious examples of the crisis. The psychological fear that pervades our society leads to high levels of anxiety and stress, which in turn lead to illnesses like cancer, heart disease and AIDS, as our immune system is weakened. These are all subtle indicators of a crisis of the spirit.
In the introduction to An Inconvenient Truth, Al Gore (2006) summarises the extent of the crisis that global warming is presenting:
This is not ultimately about any scientific discussion or political dialogue. It is about who we are as human beings. It is about our capacity to transcend our own limitations, to rise to a new occasion. To see with our hearts, as well as our heads, the response that is now called for. This is a moral, ethical and spiritual challenge. (p. 11)
In this paper I argue that a major cause of this crisis of spirit is a worldview that focuses primarily on the material plane. Consequently our way of thinking and living is dominated by this materialistic worldview. Our worldview influences and is influenced by our level of consciousness. Before I consider the meaning of worldview let me briefly consider the question what is consciousness?
Consciousness is a term that has been used to refer to a variety of aspects of the relationship between the mind and the world with which it interacts. It has been defined, at one time or another, as: subjective experience; awareness; the ability to experience feelings; wakefulness; having a sense of selfhood; or as the executive control system of the mind. Despite the difficulty of definition, many philosophers believe that there is a basic underlying intuition about consciousness that is shared by nearly all people. As Max Velmans and Susan Schneider wrote in The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness:
“Anything that we are aware of at a given moment forms part of our consciousness, making conscious experience at once the most familiar and most mysterious aspect of our lives.” 
I will return to this difficult question of consciousness later, after we examine worldview. A worldview is the way we see the world, it can also be called a paradigm. It gives us the big picture that frames the way we see the world around us, where seeing also carries the meaning of understanding. This understanding then informs our consciousness of the world. The modern worldview is one that derives from a number of influences, depending on who you read. It is sometimes referred to as the Cartesian-Newtonian or mechanical worldview because of the enormous influence that resulted from the European Enlightenment.
The World as a Time Machine
A mechanical worldview has been the basis of science for the last 400 years. In the 17th century, the physicist Isaac Newtown proposed his Laws of Mechanics and René Descartes presented his mathematical system of coordinates. It was also Descartes who created a philosophy of rationalism based on his famous dictum of ‘cogito ergo sum’, usually translated from the Latin as ‘I think, therefore I am.’ This primacy of rational thought and analysis, using a certain kind of mathematics by Descartes combined with the development of a mechanical form of physics by Newtown, led to what is known as the Cartesian-Newtonian paradigm. In this mental consciousness, the whole universe was regarded as a giant machine – an enormous clock, which followed predictable principles and mechanisms that could be measured and calculated. God, who was still alive in 17th century Europe, was then reduced to the clockmaker, who had built the clock and wound it up so that it could function. Previously physicists like Galileo and other scientists began to use microscopes and telescopes. They began to observe phenomena that were very large and very small. With the discovery of radiation by Marie Curie and the use of X-Rays and later ultrasound machines, electron microscopes and radio telescopes – more and more mysteries appeared to the scientific world that the mechanical worldview and its mathematical systems could no longer explain.
When we consider the phenomenon of life, in sciences like biology, we may become aware that the surface features of a living organism are not the whole story. Living systems are dynamic and are contained within their cell walls or membranes. They have skin or plant materials that conceal their inner workings from the naked eye. We need to dissect such organisms to look inside them. But then they are no longer alive. Consequently, we invented machines like the microscope, the X-Ray, ultrasound machine or the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to see beyond this limited surface reality. These can give us further insights or ways of seeing into living systems. When such living systems have a complex nervous system and a brain, we have even greater difficulty in knowing what is really going on in the mind of a human who is behaving in a particular way.
One of the serious limitations of the mechanistic worldview that is the basis of so much contemporary materialistic science is the so-called objective observer. This is most obvious in behaviourist psychology. Behaviourist psychologists tried to solve this problem by assuming that the human organism was just like a machine, which would respond to a certain stimulus in a certain way. There was no scope in this psychology for dreams, visions, intuitions, feelings or even complex thought processes.
Fortunately, in the 20th century psychotherapists like Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Jacob Levy Moreno, Wilhelm Reich, Arnold Mindell and many others, developed various theories of psychoanalysis, of psychodrama, sociodrama, body work and process work that could include such human phenomena.
A New Worldview, A New Consciousness
However, it was the physicists of all people, who ended the myth of materialistic science once and for all. Max Planck, Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg along with less well known physicists, developed theories of Quantum Physics and Relativity that challenged the mechanical worldview.
One way to understand this period of human history, which began with the Renaissance and lasted up till the 20th century, is as a time of the dominance of the mental consciousness. The idea of structures of consciousness was originally developed by the Franco-German-Swiss cultural philosopher and poet, Jean Gebser (1985) in his great work The Ever-Present Origins. The mental consciousness was the fourth structure of consciousness of human history, although Gebser himself avoided placing any historical dates on his structures of consciousness, as he argued they could all be present at any one time in history. Gebser’s theories have been an important influence on my thinking, I will revisit them later. Suffice to say at this stage that the discovery by physicists of time as the fourth dimension through Einstein’s Theory of Relativity and the painting of the fourth dimension in the works of Picasso and Dali, heralds the end of the mental consciousness with its three dimensional worldview and the beginning of the integral consciousness with its four dimensional worldview.
Another more recent marker of this shift in worldviews is the theory of the atom, as the smallest indivisible object in nature. This idea, often attributed to the ancient Greek philosopher Democritus, was literally exploded in the popular mind with the invention of the atomic bomb. The A-bomb was possible because of the development of the famous formula by Einstein: E = MC2. The whole solidity of matter was called into question at subatomic and astronomic levels with the realisation that waves and particles co-exist rather than being two separate phenomena.
For example light manifests predominantly as an electromagnetic wave, however it can also present as a particle called a photon. Electrons, on the other hand, which had previously been considered to be predominantly particles, also exhibited wavelike behaviour as an electron cloud around the nucleus of the atom. Another example was the case of what happens when an electron collides with a positron (a positively charged electron) – the two become a gamma ray.
Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle, Planck’s Quantum Theory, Bohr’s Quantum Leap of the electron as it changes orbits and perhaps the most mysterious of all – the observation of non-locality that developed later, have resulted in a paradigm shift in contemporary science. This paradigm shift prepares the way for an integral consciousness to come into the world. Quantum physics, cognitive biology and other new life sciences that involve Rupert Sheldrake’s (1981) discovery of morphogenetic fields, along with the new psychology and neuroscience that investigates the nature of consciousness are all part of this radical change process.
Physicists, like Amit Goswami (2011), claim that consciousness is primary as the ground of being, rather than matter being the primary state of the Universe as the Cartesian-Newtonian view claims. In his recent book and video, How Quantum Activism Can Save Civilization, he argues that this new paradigm is challenging the materialist science of the last four centuries, which along with capitalism and colonialism led to the industrial revolution of the 19th century. The mechanistic worldview that is a major contributor to the crisis of spirit is finally beginning to break down as we begin the 21st century.
Social Ecology and Integral Consciousness
My own research in the field of social ecology and Universal Sufism also supports this observation of the change of paradigm in this time. The phenomenon of cultural creatives, as discovered by the sociologist, Paul Ray, and the psychologist, Sherry Anderson (2000) is reported in their inspiring book Cultural Creatives, How 50 Million People are Changing the World.
Cultural Creatives are a mélange of all the social movements that have taken place since the 1960s. While they are brand loyal and willing to spend more for environmentally friendly products and organic and natural foods, they are suspect of advertising. They tap into a network of trusted friends for information about the products they buy and represent a distinct shift in cultural consciousness.
This paper is an exploration of creative consciousness as the philosophy that supports the phenomenon of cultural creatives. Cultural creatives are people concerned about a whole host of social, cultural, ecological and spiritual issues that impact our post-modern, post-industrial world. Some of their characteristics are: – they have a love of nature and deep caring about its preservation, and its natural balance; strong awareness of planet wide issues (i.e. climate change, poverty, overpopulation, etc.); intense interest in spiritual and psychological development; want to be involved in creating a new future; (place a) heavy emphasis on the importance of developing and maintaining relationships; concerned with indigenous issues, women’s issues; involved in community gardens; are optimistic about the future – in short the majority of people involved in disciplines like social ecology and practices like Universal Sufism.
Cultural creatives, as a phenomenon, were further researched by the systems theory philosopher Ervin Laszlo. Cultural creatives are often involved in Non-Government Organisations (NGOs). The book Blessed Unrest by Paul Hawken (2007) documents this state of mind that has led to one to two million NGOs in the world. He describes this as the largest movement for social change in the history of humankind. He speaks about this in his talks on the environmental crisis, one of which is part of the videos developed by the NGO the Pachamama Alliance and is used in the Change the Dream, Awakening the Dreamer Symposium, for which I trained as a facilitator. These phenomena all point towards a new worldview emerging in what may be as much as 35% of the community in all OECD countries according to Ervin Laszlo (2009, p. 34). I would argue that this is a sign that the ‘developed’ world is finally developing an acceptance of spirit!
The above are all indicators of a shift in world consciousness towards a new paradigm, which in the words of the Pachamama Alliance is more ecologically sustainable, more socially just and more spiritually fulfilling.
The origin of the Pachamama Alliance was a dream of the Achuar people living in the Amazon Rainforest in Ecuador. Their dream was to contact people in the north, that is the industrial world of North America, to suggest to them that they might consider changing their dream of the modern world, which has already destroyed so much of the rainforests in South America. The indigenous structure of consciousness is called the magical consciousness by Gebser (1985). This influence of indigenous peoples and their knowledge systems is further evidence of the emergence of an integral consciousness, which by definition needs to include all the other four structures of consciousness that have been part of our human story.
All this is part of the process of changing the dream of the modern world. A dream that can be traced back to the renaissance and the age of enlightenment in Europe when the mental consciousness came fully into being. The mental consciousness replaced the mythic consciousness that had dominated the planet since Neolithic times. At first this was positive, or an efficient cause, given the destructive nature of the late medieval period with its attack on the wise women of Europe and North America, who were labelled witches and often burnt at the stake. Likewise the Inquisition and the anti-Semitism, instituted by what had become a very corrupt Catholic Church, needed to be challenged. In the 20th century, with the Holocaust, the Atomic Bomb, the destruction of nature by industry, the mental consciousness has become a negative influence or a deficient cause, to use Gebser’s terms.
The Shift to a New Paradigm
So how can we encourage this process of the shift to a new paradigm, which I am calling an integral consciousness, to continue? One answer for people living in an urban, industrial setting of the so-called modern world is really quite simple. Go into nature, ground your energy, begin to breathe consciously and count our blessings as we embark on a creative project of some kind. This is related to what Hazrat Inayat Khan recommended to his students when he suggested that we read the sacred manuscript of nature as the only book that will enlighten the reader.
Another answer is to do our own reading and research into this new paradigm, which authors like Andrew Harvey (2009) discusses in his new book called The Hope that is about sacred activism. In his book Alchemy of Light, Working with the Primal Energies of Life, Llewellyn Vaughan-Lee (2007) of the Golden Sufi Centre also explores how our spiritual practice can heal both ourselves and the world. There are endless books, websites, films, videos, as well as teachers and groups we can find on our journey that can support us in this process. Finally, when we have found some useful directions find ways of sharing them with friends, family and the wider community, so ultimately we may positively influence the whole social-cultural political process.
This is a model drawn from Social Ecology (Wright, Camden-Pratt & Hill, 2011). Social Ecology is an interdisciplinary form of qualitative research that begins with the personal consciousness, which is embodied and involves psychology. This expands to the social-cultural consciousness that emerges from our personal experiences in society, our sociological domain. Our social life is contextualised in an ecology through our inter-relationship with our community in the natural world or the built environment, which provides an ecological consciousness. These are held within a cosmological consciousness that is our spiritual domain. Social ecology also researches social activism and sense of place.
I will now tell more of the story of my journey, which is consistent with the social ecology model. In social ecology we begin with the personal consciousness, our psychological domain.
Creative Consciousness as the Path to Integral Consciousness
This section of the paper is a case study of consciousness through my life experience. Consciousness is not a ‘thing’ that can be understood in the abstract, however it can be experienced. I wish to explain that I use the word consciousness in a number of ways in this paper. Primarily it relates to awareness and ways of thinking and seeing the world around us. Pure consciousness is very mysterious, in that we cannot see it directly, any more than the eye that is looking can see itself, except in a mirror. Likewise the consciousness that is looking cannot see itself, however we can experience pure consciousness in deep states of meditation, which is what drew me to yoga and Zen Buddhist practice. Another way I can experience different forms of consciousness is through language, story, poetry, music, dance, drama, art, imagination, science, mysticism and deep inquiry. It is through my consciousness that I construct my understanding of the world.
There is a Zen story that illustrates this point. It’s the story of the flag at the gate. In ancient times at Zen monasteries in Japan they would fly the flag of the monastery at the gate. One day two monks were standing at the gate. One of them looked up at the flag and said, “Look, the flag is moving.” His companion looked up and said emphatically: ”No, it’s the wind that’s moving!” His companion disagreed and they stood there arguing back and forth for a while. Then the Master came by and overheard the argument. He interjected: “It’s not the flag, it’s not the wind, it’s the mind that’s moving!” As with other teaching stories, the idea is that the Zen student meditates on the story and different students may focus on different interpretations of the story.
For me, the story shows the different levels of consciousness of the monks and the master. At a more literal and material level there can be a conflict about whether the wind or the flag is moving. One could also say that they are both moving. However at the level of consciousness of the master, it’s the mind that’s moving. My experience of Zen practice made me very aware of the many movements of my own mind, especially in the early days of a seven-day retreat called a sesshin. By the third day the mind moved less and by the sixth I would experience periods of great stillness of the mind.
It was through a number of years of Zen study and practice with Robert Aitken Roshi (1982), a Zen master from Hawaii, that I began to feel I connected to my mind in a new way. Zen taught me much about the nature of mind, and was thus very useful for my understanding of mental consciousness. My entry into Zen came through my yoga teacher John Cooper, who was also a Theosophist. It was through attending a number of his talks over the years at the Theosophical Society that I was introduced to the society. It was also through my yoga studies with John that I first discovered I was actually in my body. It happened after a number of years of attending yoga classes, one day I was doing pashimottanasana (a sitting head to knee pose) and I realised that I was actually in my body. Up until that time it was as though I had lived my life in my mind that was somehow attached to my body. But in that yoga class I developed a real sense of body consciousness from the inside.
Film was a medium I developed a great love for as a university student and that was how I began to develop my creative consciousness. I studied acting, apprenticed myself to a photographer who photographed actors and models for their portfolios and later attended a film school in Melbourne. This pursuit of the creative consciousness led me to work in theatre for which I also wrote and directed. Finally I returned to university to study the arts and majored in Drama, French and Theatre Studies. All this led to my wanting to write a book called The Buddha Nature of Theatre, which took me into the realm of Zen studies. However, to write about Buddha Nature, I felt like I needed to know what it was. It was something I had only read about. I needed to experience it in some way.
A Search for Peace and the Mystical Consciousness
My interest in both Buddhism and the performing arts actually grew out of my search for peace. This is how my personal story develops social significance. As a child of Holocaust survivors, I was conscious of the highly destructive nature of war and as a university student in the 60s I was conscious I didn’t want to be part of the war that Australia was engaged with in Vietnam. So, when I realised that science was not going to save the world, as I had been led to believe, I thought maybe the answer was in the arts. The arts could draw attention to serious social issues and communicate them. But then I found that the arts industry was often just as driven by profit, money and ego as the science industry had been and this greatly limited what one could communicate. This dilemma led to a deeper process of inquiry through reading, films, theatre, travel, conversation, writing and drama education. The idea of writing a book about The Buddha Nature of Theatre came during this crisis in my life, while working in a big city bookshop as a student. It came out of the ether one day when working in the shop, dusting books in the later afternoon and it initiated a whole other level of inquiry into the nature of consciousness itself. This led to my investigation of the spiritual and the ecological domains.
It later led to my training with Joanna Macy (1983) in her Despair and Empowerment in the Nuclear Age workshops, which were later to transform into her Deep Ecology processes. Her work opened me up to the Buddhist consciousness of our interconnectedness and systems theory, which is one of the bases of social ecology. It also led to my involvement with the Buddhist Peace Fellowship who, together with the Vietnamese community, brought Thich Nhat Hanh (Thay) (1987) to Australia in 1986, the International Year of Peace. Thay taught this Buddhist idea of our interconnectedness as interbeing. At that point in my life I felt I was getting closer to my life work, especially when I read Peter Russell’s (1985) classic work, The Awakening Earth, in which he traces the evolution of our human self-reflexive consciousness, even predicted the World Wide Web at that time. I decided to explore drama and yoga together in a process I called Drama Yoga, so bringing eastern and western ideas that I had studied and practiced together. This was a very powerful process; indeed it was so powerful that I felt like I needed some guidance. So I called out for guidance and the Universe sent along the invitation to train in the Alternative to Violence Project (AVP), a drama based Quaker non-violence project. Through AVP I came into contact with Dances of Universal Peace and Sufi practice and then I knew that I was finally home.
I once read a book by Mouni Sadhu, in which he stated that once we choose to go on the spiritual path, then we are guided. That has certainly been my experience. When I read Krishnamurti, I called that guidance choiceless awareness. Now, as a Sufi student of Hazrat Inayat Khan (1996, 1999), I call this the spirit of guidance. Whatever name I choose, the process feels the same. It’s been a process of my becoming aware of deeper levels of consciousness. Like the monks in the Zen story, I too was caught up in debating whether the wind or the flag was moving. Today I’m much more aware that it is the mind that’s moving. In one of Ervin Laszlo’s (2003) more recent books, The Consciousness Revolution, he, in dialogue with Peter Russell and Stanislav Grof, proposes that what we need today to create a more peaceful world is a revolution in consciousness inspired by artists. This idea resonates with one I had many years ago, when in conversation with a dear friend, who has since passed. I said the world today needs a revolution of the mind, before we can hope to make things better. At the time I had no idea of what that might involve, just as The Buddha Nature of Theatre idea came to me long before I could understand what that might entail.
I now have a glimpse of that revolution in the great work of Jean Gebser (1985), the Prussian born, Francophone Swiss philosopher who mapped out a series of what he called mutations of the structures of consciousness. Influenced by his meeting with Sri Aurobindo (2006), Jean Gebser (1985) came up with the idea that the next stage of consciousness needed in the world would be integral consciousness. Gary Lachman (2003), in his highly readable and inspiring book, The Secret History of Consciousness, comes to a similar conclusion as Laszlo, Grof and Russell. Lachman places Jean Gebser’s work as the climax of his secret history, which begins with people like Madame Blavatsky and the Theosophists as early forerunners of this evolutionary process. Ken Wilber has promoted integral consciousness widely in his writings in the US, and analysed the possibilities of this integration process in great depth.
Both social ecology and Universal Sufism are examples of the practice of integral consciousness. In 1999 when I had just enrolled in my doctorate in Social Ecology and my Sufi guide suggested I present something at the second Spiritual Leadership and Management (SLAM) conference, which was co-hosted by the School of Social Ecology at the University of Western Sydney, Hawkesbury. I co-presented a workshop on The Spirit of Learning: Intuition, Creativity and the In-Between with Dawn Griggs (2003) and Ian Mills (2004). I also led a number of Dances of Universal Peace for around 300 people in a giant barn space on the campus. This truly was an event where the majority of people were cultural creatives exploring different aspects of a creative consciousness and I had an even deeper feeling of coming home.
Some Closing Thoughts
My first introduction to integral consciousness was through reading Peter Russell’s works and seeing his videos at a Joanna Macy workshop in 1985. I became aware that today we are living in what he calls The Information Age. By this he means that the majority of people in countries like Australia are engaged in some form of the information industry. However this is preparation for something more profound:
As a result of the information explosion, telecommunications, and the birth of computer networks, we are beginning to exchange information with each other wherever we may be . . we are beginning to share our thinking . . we are beginning to connect together mentally. . We are beginning to link up, mind to mind.
And, as we begin to understand each other, an even deeper level of linking is occurring – a linking of soul to soul – we are beginning to appreciate our essential unity and oneness.
So the next stage of evolution could be humanity beginning to link together physically and mentally. Beginning to work and function on many different levels as an integrated system. 
As we reach the later stages of The Information Age, we face a world in crisis. We are exposed to an overwhelming number of fragments of information about the crisis. Such a crisis challenges us “morally, ethically and spiritually” as the quote by Al Gore above states.
It seems that humanity is faced with a need for massive change. There’s a need for a new story of creative consciousness. The discovery of ‘cultural creatives’ by Paul Ray and Sherry Anderson adds support to this argument. Philosophers like Krishnamurti, Ervin Laszlo, Stanislav Grof, and Peter Russell have argued that we need a consciousness revolution to address the crisis that we are facing. The cultural historian, Thomas Berry (1988), argued that we need a new story, a new dream of the Earth. The deep ecologist and peace activist, Joanna Macy, calls this the great turning. It is a situation that offers a whole new era of possibility. Hazrat Inayat Khan brought the Sufi Message to the West – a message of love, harmony and beauty, which inspired the American Sufi Samuel Lewis to create the Dances of Universal Peace. These dances are an embodiment of integral consciousness. I demonstrated this when I led a number of these dances in Melbourne in 2008 at the first conference on Jean Gebser in English, outside of North America.
The question we all need to face in our own way is how we can dance into this new consciousness? Such questions have faced humanity before, as the 13th century Sufi poet Jelaludin Mevlava Rumi says:
we came whirling
out of nothingness
the stars made a circle
and in the middle
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A Call For Our Time: The Story of The Pachamama Alliance (2010)http://vimeo.com/17068946accessed 27/6/11
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Written by Dr Ben-Zion Weiss or Arjuna © 19/6/2012
 http://www.peterrussell.com/SCG/EoC.php accessed 23/6/11
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consciousness accessed 23/6/11
 http://www.smithandjones.com/content479?id=479 accessed 24/6/11
 see SLAM Journal 2010 for paper on Drama Yoga
 http://www.jkrishnamurti.org/index.php accessed 24/6/11
 Thomas Berry spoke of the need for the great work at this time in the story of the universe which later led to his book of the same name – see video of the launch of the book The Universe Story by the Centre for Ecology and Spirituality in the USA and Canada, in 1993.
 see http://www.integralinstitute.org/ accessed 24/6/11
 from the transcript of the Global Brain Video http://www.peterrussell.com/GB/GBtext.php accessed 23/6/11